L505 Organization and Representation of
Knowledge and Information

School of Library and Information Science
Indiana University
Spring 1997
Instructor: Uta Priss
Email: upriss@indiana.edu
Office: 022 SLIS
Office phone: 812-855-2793
Office hours: Wednesday 1pm - 3pm, Thursday 10am - 12am

Course Syllabus

Introduction

The representation and organization of information resources is a primary focus of the information profession. Organizational structures such as classification schemes, indexes, bibliographies and catalogs have been devised to provide access not only to the document, but to its intellectual content - the knowledge or information recorded in the document. The recent explosive growth in both the number and the variety of information resources serves to underscore the continuing need for application of effective methods of representation and organization.

Practical and effective systems of information representation and organization must depend upon a comprehensive understanding not only of the theoretical foundations of bibliographic organization but also of the basic principles of human cognition. Accordingly, this course will investigate the basic principles and theoretical foundations of traditional organizational schemes. This investigation will include materials from traditional librarianship, information science, cognitive science, semiotics, and artificial intelligence and expert systems that have contributed to an understanding of how people obtain, store, retrieve and use information. It will also examine how research in these areas can inform current practices of representation and organization in the design of more effective and more efficient information retrieval systems.

Course Objectives

  1. To introduce the student to a broad range of knowledge representation models drawn from the fields of information science, communication, semiotics, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence.
  2. To develop in the student the ability to understand and effectively apply principles of representation and organization currently used to provide access to information resources.
  3. To provide practical experience in applying the basic principles of knowledge organization and representation to the indexing, abstracting and classification of information in several media.
  4. To enable the student to analyze information resources for hypertext indexing.
  5. To provide the student with a practical understanding of the function of subject analysis in indexing and classification.
  6. To provide the student with an understanding of the development and application of controlled vocabularies and syndetic structures.
  7. To introduce the student to the major classification systems currently in use and to provide the student with the ability to effectively employ such classification schemes in the representation of information.

Class Organization

The structure of each class session will center around lectures by the instructor, group presentations, and class discussions. Lecture, presentations, and discussions will cover the topic for the session as indicated on the syllabus. Students are strongly encouraged to participate actively in all lectures and discussions since each student's participation in class activities will constitute 20 % of his/her final grade. During the first session students will form teams. Each team will get a certain topic related to one session for which they will prepare a presentation (see below).

Required Readings

There is no required text for this class. However, the text listed below will be available in the IMU bookstore by the second week of classes, in case you would like to purchase it.

Iyer, Hemalata. (1995). Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt am Main: Indeks Verlag.

A copy of this book is on Reserve in the SLIS library, as are copies of other assigned readings. The Class Schedule (contained in this handout) lists the other readings. It is required that every student completes every week's readings before the class meeting.

Grading

The grades are given according to the SLIS grading standards. Good work that meets the course expectations will be assigned a grade of B. To get a higher grade than B, the students must demonstrate above average comprehension of the course materials, knowledge and/or effort.

The final course grade will be computed for each student on the basis of grades assigned for the following:

Class contribution and listserv discussion 20%
Group presentation 20%
Term paper 20%
Journal 20%
Final Exam 20%

Each student is expected to complete all coursework by the end of the term. A grade of incomplete (I) will be assigned only if exceptional circumstances warrant.

Class contribution

Class contribution does not mean attendance, but the quality and quantity of contributions to the work of the class. Comments and questions are equally valuable if they help to clarify the topics and to move the discussion forward. The assignments and readings of each week must be completed before the class meeting so that substantive and meaningful contributions from the students are possible. It is required that every student demonstrate respect for the ideas, opinions, and feelings of all other members of the class. Academic and personal misconduct by students in this class are defined and dealt with according to the procedures in the Code of Student Ethics.

Listserv

A majordomo distribution list will be used to communicate about course matters. The students should send comments and questions concerning the reading materials to this list. Participation in the listserv discussions will be counted towards class participation. The distribution list is priss_l505@indiana.edu.

Group presentation

In the first session the students will form teams. Each team will get a topic assigned that is related to one session for which they prepare a presentation. The topics consist of a subject or subject area, such as a certain classification system or a certain aspect of thesaurus research. The team will prepare a list of references for the topic, study the structures of information or knowledge contained in the topic, and apply the terms and concepts learned from this course to the topic. The class presentation will highlight the important features of the topic and present the results of the team's analysis, including a critical evaluation of the subject. The presentation will last for 30 minutes. Handouts of 1 or 2 pages containing the outline of the talk, the main statements and the references will be prepared.

The groups are recommended to consult the instructor several times throughout the semester to clarify questions and to discuss details of the topic.

Term paper

The students will write a term paper on the topic of their presentation. In contrast to the presentation, which is prepared by a team of students, the paper has to be written by each student individually. The paper must be written in a scholarly, scientific style and not exceed 10 pages. It should contain an introduction into the topic, a critical analysis, and a list of references.

Journal

Journals are to be organized chronologically and should be kept in a spiral notebook or bound composition book. It is also acceptable to use a computer text editor and keep printouts in a folder. Each entry must carry a short heading that indicates the type of entry (summary of assigned or outside reading, abstract, class commentary, class notes, essay, etc.) and the session to which it belongs. (For example: Abstract of "Hemalata Iyer: Interdisciplinarity", Session 2). The headings must be underlined or highlighted in a different color. Because journals are personal, the content will vary and will reflect the intellectual effort put forth by that student. The completeness rather than the content will be the basis for grading. The following materials are required of all journals:

Optional materials may include: Informative abstracts, discussions, or summaries of outside readings; questions raised by readings, class lectures or discussions; class notes; or others.

Journals will be turned in for review and evaluation at three separate points during the semester (Feb. 13, March 13, April 17). At each review, a letter grade will be assigned based on

The final journal grade will be computed as an average of the three review grades.

Final Exam

The final exam will be a take-home exam consisting of 4 essay questions and will be distributed at the conclusion of the class on April 24. It will be due at the beginning of the class on May 1.


Class Schedule:


Session: 1. Introduction to Organization of Knowledge and Information

Thursday, Jan. 16, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Write in your journal about how your personal library is organized. Which other methods of organizations are possible.
  2. Which methods of organization are used in a phone-book? Which possibilities of information retrieval offers a phone-book on CD-ROM compared to a printed phone-book?

Readings:

Macrorie, Ken (1976).
Chapter 16: Keeping a journal. In: Writing to be read. 2nd ed., Rochelle Park, NJ: Hayden, pp 147-158.


Session: 2. Data, Information, and Knowledge

Thursday, Jan. 23, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Write in your journal a short essay on `what is information?'

Readings:

Buckland, Michael. (1991).
Information as thing. JASIS, 42, pp 351-360.
Wilson, P. (1978).
Some fundamental concepts of information retrieval. Drexel Library Quarterly 14 (2), pp 10-24.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Interdisciplinarity. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 12-28.
(Optional) Machlup,F., and Mansfield, U. (1983).
Cultural diversity in studies of information. In: F. Machlup and U. Mansfield (Eds.), The study of information: Interdisciplinary messages. New York: John Wiley, pp 3-59.


Session: 3. Abstracting workshop

Thursday, Jan. 30, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Prepare a list of subjects for the three articles.
  2. Write an indicative and an informative abstract for the Bush article.
  3. Write an indicative or an informative abstract for the other two articles.

Readings:

Borko, Harold, and Bernier, Charles L. (1975).
Characteristics and types of abstracts. In: Abstracting concepts and methods. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp 3-24.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991).
Introduction; Indexing principles. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, Il.: University of Illinois Press, pp 1-18.
(Optional) Fidel, Raya. (1986).
Writing abstracts for free-text searching. Journal of Documentation, 42 (1), pp 11-21.

Articles for abstracting:

Bush, Vannevar. (1996/1945).
As we may think. Interactions, 3(2), pp 35-46. Originally published in Atlantic Monthly, 176 (1), pp 101-108.
Gross, Linden. (1996).
Steven Spielberg's close encounter with the past. Reader's Digest (April 1996), pp 71-76.
Randi, James. (1996).
Investigating miracles, Italian-style. Scientific American (February 1996), p 136.


Session: 4. Cognitive Organization of Information I: Categorization

Thursday, Feb. 6, Topics:

Assignments:

Visit a grocery store and write an analysis of the store's organization in your journal. In your analysis, focus on

  1. how the merchandise is organized/categorized;
  2. why you think this particular organizational structure was adopted; and
  3. whether this organizational/categorization scheme actually helps or hinders the customer in finding specific items.

Readings:

Jacob, Elin K. (1991).
Classification and categorization: drawing the line. In: Barbara H. Kwasnik and Raya Fidel (Eds.). Advances in classification research. Vol. 2, Washington D.C.: American Society for Information Science, pp 67-83.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. (1991).
Chapters 1, 2, and 4 of The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 5-32 and 61-80.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Cognition and Categories. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 40-56.


Session: 5. Cognitive Organization of Information II: Scripts, Schemas, and Mental Models

Thursday, Feb. 13, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. List elements of the script "Shopping in a grocery store".
  2. Choose two different persons who shop in the same grocery store, but have different expectations (eg. an American that moved recently to a new town, a person from a foreign culture). In what way is their shopping supported - or not - by the grocery store you analyzed last week? Try to explain the problems in terms of scripts.

Readings:

Lakoff, George, and Johnson, Mark. (1980).
Metaphorical systematicity: highlighting and hiding. In: Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 10-13.
Rumelhart, David E. (1984).
Schemata and the cognitive system. In: Wyer and Srull (Eds.). Handbook of social cognition. Vol. 1, Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp 161-188.
Schank, Roger, and Kass, Alex. (1988).
Knowledge representation in people and machines. In: Umberto Eco, Marco Santambrogio and Patrizia Violi (Eds.), Meaning and mental representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp 181-200.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Artificial Intelligence and Classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, only pp 164-169.
(Optional) Wright, Robert. (1996).
Can machines think? Time (March 25 1996), 50-58.
(Optional) Miller, George A. (1956).
The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63, 81-87.


Session: 6. Systematic Organization of Information: Classification

Thursday, Feb. 20, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Choose 3 items that are sold in a grocery store and define classes for them according to different aspects (eg. according to physical shape, purpose of use, how long storable, etc.). Why are different classifications needed? Is there a multi-purpose classification? How do classes for these items differ from categories?

Readings:

Bliss, Henry Evelyn. (1934).
The problem of classification for libraries. In: The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books. New York: H. W. Wilson, pp 1-20.
Bliss, Henry Evelyn. (1934).
The principles of classification for libraries. In: The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books. New York: H. W. Wilson, pp 21-46.
Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1950).
Classification as the basis of bibliographic organization. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 77-96.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Normative principles. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 30-39.
(Optional) Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1957).
Pattern, structure, and conceptualization in classification for information retrieval. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 112-128.


Session: 7. Classification Schemes I: Enumerative systems

Thursday, Feb. 27, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Choose one book in the area of library and information science and describe how it is classified in the library in which it was located. How would it be classified if the Dewey Decimal or the Library of Congress Classification were used?

Readings:

Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1961).
The dignity and advancement of Bacon. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 143-150.
Buchanan, Brian. (1979).
Introduction; Classification: definition and uses; The relationships between classes; Enumerative and faceted schemes; Decisions. In: Theory of library classification. London: Clive Bingley, only pp 17-44.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Structural models of classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 88-96.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Non-faceted classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 97-104.
Pietris, Mary Kay (1990).
Library of Congrss classification. In Bengtson and Hill (eds.). Classification of library materials. New York, Neal-Schuman.
(Optional) Dewey, Melvil. (1972/1927).
Decimal classification and relative index. In: A. F. Painter (ed.). Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging. NCR Microcard Editions, pp 81-86.


Session: 8. Classification Schemes II: Faceted systems

Thursday, Mar. 6, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Create a chart table comparing the characteristics of enumerative and faceted classification systems

Readings:

Vickery, Brian C. (1972/1966).
Faceted classification schemes. In: A.F. Painter (Ed.). Reader in classification and descriptive cataloguing. NCR Microcard Editions pp 107-114.
Iyer, Hemalata (1995).
Faceted Structures. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations, and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 105-125.
Williamson, N. and McIlwaine, I.C. (1994).
A feasibility study on the restructuring of the Universal Decimal Classification into a fully faceted classification system. In: H. Albrectsen and S. Oernager (Eds.). Advances in Knowledge Organization, Vol 4, Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 406-413.
(Optional) Ranganathan, S. R. (1962).
Canons of Classification. In: Elements of library classification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, pp 45-70.


Session: 9. Indexing I: Principles, Practice, and Languages

Thursday, Mar. 13, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Choose one category term from the LC Subject Headings that also exists in the ERIC Thesaurus. How is the term represented? Compare the strength and weakness of LCSH and ERIC (chart table).

Readings:

Taylor, Arlene G. (1995).
On the subject of subjects. Journal of Academic Librarianship 21(6), 484-491.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid (1991).
Indexing Practice. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, Il., University of Illinois Press, pp 19-40.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991).
Natural language in information retrieval. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, IL, University of Illinois Press, pp 193-218.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Vocabularies. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 60-85.
(Optional) Green, Rebecca. (1992).
Insights into classification from the cognitive sciences: Ramifications for index languages. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 215-222.


Session: 10. Indexing II: Automatic Systems of Indexing and Classification

Thursday, Mar. 27, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Write a chart table: advantages and problems of automatic systems of indexing and classification.

Readings:

Chan, Lois Mai. (1990).
Subject analysis tools online: The challenge ahead. Information Technology and Libraries 9(3), 258-262.
Humphrey, Susanne M. (1992).
Use and management of classification systems for knowledge-based indexing. In: J. Williamson and M. Hudon (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 89-100.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Artificial intelligence and classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, only pp 169-175.
Lancaster, F. Wilfred (1991)
Automatic indexing, automatic abstracting and related procedures. In: Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp 219-246.
(Optional) Svenonius, E., et al. (1992).
Automation of chain indexing. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 351-364.


Session: 11. Thesauri I: Structures

Thursday, Apr. 3, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Design a thesaurus entry for `thesauri' using the syndetic structure `UF/BT/RT/NT'. Try to locate `thesauri' in LCSH and ERIC. Follow the `BT/RT/NT' relations starting at `thesauri' as far as possible. Draw graphs of the syndetic structure of the entries `thesauri' in LCSH and ERIC. Compare the syndetic structures in LCSH and ERIC to your thesaurus entry.

Readings:

Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Faceted approach to indexing systems. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 127-142.
Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987).
Planning and design of thesauri. In: Thesaurus construction: A practical manual. 2nd ed., London: Aslib, pp 3-10.
Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987).
Structure: basic relationships and classification. In: Thesaurus construction: A practical manual. 2nd ed., London: Aslib, pp 34-60.
Soergel, Dagobert. (1985).
Terminological control. In: Organizing information. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp 213-222.


Session: 12. Thesauri II: Natural Language Thesauri and Applications

Thursday, Apr. 10, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Locate the word `thesaurus' in WordNet and Roget's International Thesaurus. How is `thesaurus' classified in both thesauri? How do natural language thesauri differ from library thesauri, such as LCSH and ERIC?

Readings:

Wilks, Yorick et al. (1996)
The Construction of Modern Lexicons. In: Electric Words. MIT Press, pp 121-136.
Calzolari, Nicoletta (1988)
The Dictionary and the Thesaurus can be Combined. In: Evens, M. W. (ed.). Relational Models of the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press, pp 75-95.
Johnson, Eric H. (1995)
A Hypertext interface for a Searcher's Thesaurus.
http://csdl.tamu.edu/DL95/
Yarowski, David (1992)
Word-Sense Disambiguation Using Statistical Models of Roget's Categories Trained on Large Corpora. Proc. of COLING-92, Nantes, Aug. 23-28, 1992.


Session: 13. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials I: Hypertext

Thursday, Apr. 17, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Compare two Internet image index systems: http://www.sils.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/htdocs/index.html
    http://wwwqbic.almaden.ibm.com/~qbic/qbic.html

Readings:

Balasubramanian, V. (1994).
Hypertext - An introduction. In: State of the art review on hypermedia issues and applications, pp 2-12. Converted to HTML by Denys Duchier, March 1994.
http://www.isg.sfu.ca/~duchier/misc/hypertext_review/index.html

Liebscher, Peter. (1994).
Hypertext and indexing. In: R. Fidel et al. (Eds.). Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information for American Society for Information Science, pp 103-109.
Nelson, Theodor H. (1994).
Xanadu: document interconnection enabling re-use with automatic author credit and royalty accounting. Information Services & Use, 14, pp 255-265.
(Optional) Simpson, R., et al. (1996).
50 years after "As we may think": The Brown/MIT Vannevar Bush Symposium. Interactions, 3(2), pp 47-67.
(Optional) Baumbach, D. (1992).
Hypertext. In: Macmillan encyclopedia of computers. New York: Macmillan, pp 508-511.


Session: 14. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials II: Verbal vs. Nonverbal Subject Analysis

Thursday, Apr. 24, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. In your journal discuss the pros and cons of indexing the intellectual content of images based on meaningfulness or usefulness to patrons, as proposed by Krause.

Readings:

Austin, David L. (1994).
An image is not an object: but it can help. In: A. H. Helal and J. W. Weiss (Eds.). Resource sharing: new technologies as a must for universal availability of information. Essen: Universitaetsbibliothek Essen, pp 277-294.
Feder, Judy. (1995?).
New directions for image recognition: toward image content-based retrieval for the World Wide Web. Advanced Imaging, X, 26, 28.
Grund, A. (1993).
ICONCLASS: On subject analysis of iconographic representations of works of art. Knowledge organization, 20, pp 20-29.
Krause, Michael G. (1988).
Intellectual problems of indexing picture collections. Audiovisual Librarian, 14, pp 73-81.
Lunin, Lois F. (1994).
Analyzing art objects for an image database. In: R. Fidel et al. (Eds.). Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information for American Society for Information Science, pp 57-72.
Shatford Layne, Sara. (1994).
Some issues in the indexing of images. JASIS, 45(8), pp 583-588.


Session: 15. Analysis, Synthesis and Projection

Thursday, May. 1, Topics:

Readings:

Davis, Watson. (1967/1965).
The universal brain: Is centralized storage and retrieval of all knowledge possible, feasible, or desirable? In: M. Kochen (Ed.). The growth of knowledge. New York: John Wiley, pp 60-65.
Fallows, James. (1996).
Navigating the galaxies. Atlantic Monthly (April 1996), pp 104-107.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Universals. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 177-191.
Pool, Robert. (1994).
Turning an info-glut into a library. Science 266, pp 20-22.
Steinberg, Steve G. (1996).
Seek and ye shall find (maybe). Wired (May 1996), pp 108-114.
Svenonius, Elaine. (1992).
Classification: Prospects, problems and possibilities. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudon (eds.). Classification Research for Knowledge Representation and Organization, pp 5-25.


Uta Priss
Thu Jan 16 10:49:32 EST 1997