L505 Organization and Representation of
Knowledge and Information

School of Library and Information Science
Indiana University
Fall 1997

Instructor: Uta Priss
Email: upriss@indiana.edu
Office: 022 SLIS
Office phone: 812-855-2793
Office hours: Bloomington: We 1.00 - 3.00 and by appointment
Indianapolis: Friday after class

Course Syllabus

Here are some web pages related to L505.

Introduction

The representation and organization of information resources is a primary focus of the information profession. Organizational structures such as classification schemes, indexes, bibliographies and catalogs have been devised to provide access not only to the document, but to its intellectual content - the knowledge or information recorded in the document. The recent explosive growth in both the number and the variety of information resources serves to underscore the continuing need for application of effective methods of representation and organization.

Practical and effective systems of information representation and organization must depend upon a comprehensive understanding not only of the theoretical foundations of bibliographic organization but also of the basic principles of human cognition. Accordingly, this course will investigate the basic principles and theoretical foundations of traditional organizational schemes. This investigation will include materials from traditional librarianship, information science, cognitive science, semiotics, and artificial intelligence and expert systems that have contributed to an understanding of how people obtain, store, retrieve and use information. It will also examine how research in these areas can inform current practices of representation and organization in the design of more effective and more efficient information retrieval systems.

Course Objectives

  1. To introduce the student to a broad range of knowledge representation models drawn from the fields of information science, communication, semiotics, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence.
  2. To develop in the student the ability to understand and effectively apply principles of representation and organization currently used to provide access to information resources.
  3. To provide practical experience in applying the basic principles of knowledge organization and representation to the indexing, abstracting and classification of information in several media.
  4. To enable the student to analyze information resources for hypertext indexing.
  5. To provide the student with a practical understanding of the function of subject analysis in indexing and classification.
  6. To provide the student with an understanding of the development and application of controlled vocabularies and syndetic structures.
  7. To introduce the student to the major classification systems currently in use and to provide the student with the ability to effectively employ such classification schemes in the representation of information.

Class Organization

The structure of each class session will center around lectures by the instructor, group presentations, and class discussions. Lecture, presentations, and discussions will cover the topic for the session as indicated on the syllabus. Students are strongly encouraged to participate actively in all lectures and discussions since each student's participation in class activities will constitute 1/3 of his/her final grade. During the first session students will form teams. Each team will compose an electronic journal for the class and prepare a presentation for one class session (see below).

Required Readings

There is no required text for this class. However, the text listed below will be available in the IMU bookstore, in case you would like to purchase it.

Iyer, Hemalata. (1995). Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt am Main: Indeks Verlag.

A copy of this book is on Reserve in the SLIS library, as are copies of other assigned readings. The Class Schedule (contained in this handout) lists the other readings. It is required that every student completes every week's readings before the class meeting.

Grading

The grades are given according to the SLIS grading standards. Good work that meets the course expectations will be assigned a grade of B. To get a higher grade than B, the students must demonstrate above average comprehension of the course materials, knowledge and/or effort.

The final course grade will be computed for each student on the basis of grades assigned for the following:

Class contribution and listserv discussion 1/3
Team project: journal and presentation 1/3
Final exam 1/3

Each student is expected to complete all course work by the end of the term. A grade of incomplete (I) will be assigned only if exceptional circumstances warrant.

Class contribution and listserv discussions

Class contribution does not mean attendance, but the quality and quantity of contributions to the work of the class. Comments and questions are equally valuable if they help to clarify the topics and to move the discussion forward. The assignments and readings of each week must be completed before the class meeting so that substantive and meaningful contributions from the students are possible. It is required that every student demonstrate respect for the ideas, opinions, and feelings of all other members of the class.

A majordomo distribution list will be used to communicate about course matters. The students should send comments and questions concerning the reading materials to this list. Participation in the listserv discussions will be counted towards class participation, i.e. students who do not like to speak up in class can contribute their ideas via the listserv. It is recommended that all students check their email at least three times a week for messages to the distribution list. The distribution list for the Bloomington students is priss_l505@indiana.edu. The distribution list for the Indianapolis students is priss_orki@indiana.edu.

Team project: journal and presentation

In the first session the students will form teams. Each team will compile an electronic journal which they make available on the Internet. (If a team consists of students who have not taken or waived L401, they can compose a typewritten journal instead. The form of the journal, electronic or printed, has to be determined during the first class session.) Only the content and the completeness of the journal and not the graphical design of the pages or the html encoding will be graded. Although the design will not be graded, it is expected that the journals are spell-checked and written in a style which is appropriate for publication on the Internet.

The journal must at least contain

Optional journal entries may include: (Each optional entry must contain a heading and the name(s) of the team member(s) who created it.)

The students are encouraged to read the journals of other students and to discuss the topics with them. Journals will be evaluated by the instructor at three separate points during the semester (The day following session 5, session 10, and session 15). At each review, a letter grade for each individual student will be assigned based on

The final journal grade will be computed as an average of the three review grades.

Group presentation

During the first class session each team will get a topic assigned that is related to one session. The topics consist of a subject or subject area, such as a certain classification system or a certain aspect of thesaurus research. The team will prepare a list of references for the topic, study the structures of information or knowledge contained in the topic, and apply the terms and concepts learned from this course to the topic. The team will give a 20 to 30 minute presentation on the topic which will highlight the important features of the topic and present the results of the team's analysis, including a critical evaluation of the subject. Handouts of 1 or 2 pages containing the outline of the talk, the main statements and the references will be prepared.

The groups are recommended to consult the instructor several times throughout the semester to clarify questions and to discuss details of the topic.

Final Exam

The final exam will be a take-home exam consisting of 4 essay questions and will be distributed at the conclusion of class session 14. It will be due at the beginning of the class session 15.

A note on plagiarism

The students must clearly indicate if they use materials from other sources, such as textbooks or Internet webpages. Full citation information must be given for such sources. The entries of the journal must contain information on the authors, i.e. whether they have been written by all members of the team or by an individual member. Academic and personal misconduct by students in this class are defined and dealt with according to the procedures in the Code of Student Ethics.


Class Schedule


Session: 1. Introduction to Organization of Knowledge and Information

Indy: 8.22; Blm: 9.1; Topics:

Assignments (not to be included in the journal):

  1. Analyse how your personal library is organized. Which other methods of organizations are possible.
  2. Analyse the methods of organization used in a phone-book. Which possibilities of information retrieval offers a phone-book on CD-ROM compared to a printed phone-book? Take notes. You may be able to use them for the assignment in Session 11.
  3. Discuss with your team members the organization of your web pages and your team work. How many pages will you have? Which entries will be together on one page? Will you include pages for the individual team members?


Session: 2. Data, Information, and Knowledge

Indy: 8.29; Blm: 9.8; Topics:

Assignments (team):

  1. Write a page for your journal which contains definitions of `information', `data', `knowledge' as they appear in encyclopedias, dictionaries, text books or on the Internet. For each definition include the citation information and an evaluation whether the definition is neutral or belongs to a certain discipline.

Readings:

Buckland, Michael. (1991).
Information as thing. JASIS, 42, pp 351-360.
Wilson, P. (1978).
Some fundamental concepts of information retrieval. Drexel Library Quarterly 14 (2), pp 10-24.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Interdisciplinarity. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 12-28.
(Optional) Machlup, F., and Mansfield, U. (1983).
Cultural diversity in studies of information. In: F. Machlup and U. Mansfield (Eds.), The study of information: Interdisciplinary messages. New York: John Wiley, pp 3-59.


Session: 3. Abstracting workshop

Indy: 9.5; Blm: 9.15; Topics:

Assignments (individual):

  1. Prepare a list of subjects for the three articles.
  2. Write an indicative or an informative abstract for the Bush article.
  3. Write an indicative or an informative abstract for the other two articles.

Readings:

Borko, Harold, and Bernier, Charles L. (1975).
Characteristics and types of abstracts. In: Abstracting concepts and methods. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp 3-24.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991).
Introduction; Indexing principles. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, Il.: University of Illinois Press, pp 1-18.
(Optional) Fidel, Raya. (1986).
Writing abstracts for free-text searching. Journal of Documentation, 42 (1), pp 11-21.

Articles for abstracting:

Bush, Vannevar. (1996/1945).
As we may think. Interactions, 3(2), pp 35-46. Originally published in Atlantic Monthly, 176 (1), pp 101-108. Available here
Gross, Linden. (1996).
Steven Spielberg's close encounter with the past. Reader's Digest (April 1996), pp 71-76.
Randi, James. (1996).
Investigating miracles, Italian-style. Scientific American (February 1996), p 136.


Session: 4. Cognitive Organization of Information I: Categorization

Indy: 9.12; Blm: 9.22; Topics:

Assignments (individual):

Visit a grocery store and write an analysis of the store's organization in your journal. In your analysis, focus on

  1. how the merchandise is organized/categorized;
  2. why you think this particular organizational structure was adopted; and
  3. whether this organizational/categorization scheme actually helps or hinders the customer in finding specific items.

Readings:

Jacob, Elin K. (1991).
Classification and categorization: drawing the line. In: Barbara H. Kwasnik and Raya Fidel (Eds.). Advances in classification research. Vol. 2, Washington D.C.: American Society for Information Science, pp 67-83.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. (1991).
Chapters 1, 2, and 4 of The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 5-32 and 61-80.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Cognition and Categories. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 40-56.


Session: 5. Cognitive Organization of Information II: Scripts, Schemas, and Mental Models

Indy: 9.19; Blm: 9.29; Topics:

Assignments (individual):

  1. List elements of the script "Shopping in a grocery store".
  2. Choose two different persons who shop in the same grocery store, but have different expectations (eg. an American that moved recently to a new town, a person from a foreign culture). In what way is their shopping supported - or not - by the grocery store you analyzed last week? Try to explain the problems in terms of scripts.

Readings:

Lakoff, George, and Johnson, Mark. (1980).
Metaphorical systematicity: highlighting and hiding. In: Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 10-13.
Rumelhart, David E. (1984).
Schemata and the cognitive system. In: Wyer and Srull (Eds.). Handbook of social cognition. Vol. 1, Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp 161-188.
Schank, Roger, and Kass, Alex. (1988).
Knowledge representation in people and machines. In: Umberto Eco, Marco Santambrogio and Patrizia Violi (Eds.), Meaning and mental representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp 181-200.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Artificial Intelligence and Classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, only pp 164-169.
(Optional) Wright, Robert. (1996).
Can machines think? Time (March 25 1996), 50-58.
(Optional) Miller, George A. (1956).
The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63, 81-87.


Session: 6. Systematic Organization of Information: Classification

Indy: 9.26; Blm: 10.6; Topics:

Assignments (individual):

  1. Choose 3 items that are sold in a grocery store and define classes for them according to different aspects (eg. according to physical shape, purpose of use, how long storable, etc.). Why are different classifications needed? Is there a multi-purpose classification? How do classes for these items differ from categories?

Readings:

Bliss, Henry Evelyn. (1934).
The problem of classification for libraries. In: The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books. New York: H. W. Wilson, pp 1-20.
Bliss, Henry Evelyn. (1934).
The principles of classification for libraries. In: The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books. New York: H. W. Wilson, pp 21-46.
Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1950).
Classification as the basis of bibliographic organization. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 77-96.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Normative principles. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 30-39.
(Optional) Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1957).
Pattern, structure, and conceptualization in classification for information retrieval. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 112-128.


Session: 7. Classification Schemes I: Enumerative systems

Indy: 10.3; Blm: 10.13; Topics:

Assignments (team):

  1. Each team member choose one of the books of one of the assigned readings for this class and find out how it is (or would be) classified using the Dewey Decimal and the Library of Congress Classification. Write the results on a page of your journal.

Readings:

Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1961).
The dignity and advancement of Bacon. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 143-150.
Buchanan, Brian. (1979).
Introduction; Classification: definition and uses; The relationships between classes; Enumerative and faceted schemes; Decisions. In: Theory of library classification. London: Clive Bingley, only pp 17-44.
Pietris, Mary Kay (1990).
Library of Congress classification. In Bengtson and Hill (eds.). Classification of library materials. New York, Neal-Schuman.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Structural models of classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 88-96.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Non-faceted classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 97-104.
(Optional) Dewey, Melvil. (1972/1927).
Decimal classification and relative index. In: A. F. Painter (ed.). Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging. NCR Microcard Editions, pp 81-86.


Session: 8. Classification Schemes II: Faceted systems

Indy: 10.10; Blm: 10.20; Topics:

Assignments (team):

  1. Create a faceted classification system for the readings of this class. Provide a notation for each reading of the previous sessions. For the following sessions: provide a notation for each reading when you read them during the next weeks.
  2. (Not to be included in the journal, individual) Create a chart table comparing the characteristics of enumerative and faceted classification systems.

Readings:

Vickery, Brian C. (1972/1966).
Faceted classification schemes. In: A.F. Painter (Ed.). Reader in classification and descriptive cataloguing. NCR Microcard Editions pp 107-114.
Williamson, N. and McIlwaine, I.C. (1994).
A feasibility study on the restructuring of the Universal Decimal Classification into a fully faceted classification system. In: H. Albrectsen and S. Oernager (Eds.). Advances in Knowledge Organization, Vol 4, Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 406-413.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata (1995).
Faceted Structures. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations, and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 105-125.
(Optional) Ranganathan, S. R. (1962).
Canons of Classification. In: Elements of library classification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, pp 45-70.


Session: 9. Indexing I: Principles, Practice, and Languages

Indy: 10.17; Blm: 10.27; Topics:

Assignments (not to be included in the journal):

  1. Familiarize yourself with the LC Subject Headings and the ERIC Thesaurus. Choose one category term from the LC Subject Headings that also exists in the ERIC Thesaurus. How is the term represented? Compare the strength and weakness of LCSH and ERIC (chart table).

Readings:

Taylor, Arlene G. (1995).
On the subject of subjects. Journal of Academic Librarianship 21(6), 484-491.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid (1991).
Indexing Practice. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, Il., University of Illinois Press, pp 19-40.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991).
Natural language in information retrieval. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, IL, University of Illinois Press, pp 193-218.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Vocabularies. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 60-85.
(Optional) Green, Rebecca. (1992).
Insights into classification from the cognitive sciences: Ramifications for index languages. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 215-222.


Session: 10. Indexing II: Automatic Systems of Indexing and Classification

Indy: 10.24; Blm: 11.3; Topics:

Assignments (team):

  1. Create an index for the readings in your journal.

Readings:

Chan, Lois Mai. (1990).
Subject analysis tools online: The challenge ahead. Information Technology and Libraries 9(3), 258-262.
Humphrey, Susanne M. (1992).
Use and management of classification systems for knowledge-based indexing. In: J. Williamson and M. Hudon (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 89-100.
Lancaster, F. Wilfred (1991)
Automatic indexing, automatic abstracting and related procedures. In: Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp 219-246.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Artificial intelligence and classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, only pp 169-175.
(Optional) Svenonius, E., et al. (1992).
Automation of chain indexing. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 351-364.


Session: 11. Thesauri I: Structures

Indy: 10.31; Blm: 11.10; Topics:

Assignments (team):

  1. Create a thesaurus for the readings in your journal.
  2. (Individual, not to be included in the journal) Design a thesaurus entry for `thesauri' using the syndetic structure `UF/BT/RT/NT'. Try to locate `thesauri' in LCSH and ERIC. Follow the `BT/RT/NT' relations starting at `thesauri' as far as possible. Draw graphs of the syndetic structure of the entries `thesauri' in LCSH and ERIC. Compare the syndetic structures in LCSH and ERIC to your thesaurus entry.

Readings:

Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987).
Planning and design of thesauri. In: Thesaurus construction: A practical manual. 2nd ed., London: Aslib, pp 3-10.
Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987).
Structure: basic relationships and classification. In: Thesaurus construction: A practical manual. 2nd ed., London: Aslib, pp 34-60.
Soergel, Dagobert. (1985).
Terminological control. In: Organizing information. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp 213-222.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Faceted approach to indexing systems. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 127-142.


Session: 12. Thesauri II: Natural Language Thesauri and Graphical Displays

Indy: 11.7; Blm: 11.17; Topics:

Assignments (not to be included in the journal):

  1. Locate the word `thesaurus' in WordNet and Roget's International Thesaurus. How is `thesaurus' classified in both thesauri? How do natural language thesauri differ from library thesauri, such as LCSH and ERIC?

Readings:

Lin, Xia (1997)
Map Displays for Information Retrieval. Journ. of the Amer. Soc. for Inf. Sci. 48 (1), pp. 40-54.
Calzolari, Nicoletta (1988)
The Dictionary and the Thesaurus can be Combined. In: Evens, M. W. (ed.). Relational Models of the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press, pp 75-95.
Johnson, Eric H. (1995)
A Hypertext interface for a Searcher's Thesaurus.
http://csdl.tamu.edu/DL95/
Yarowski, David (1992)
Word-Sense Disambiguation Using Statistical Models of Roget's Categories Trained on Large Corpora. Proc. of COLING-92, Nantes, Aug. 23-28, 1992.
(Optional) Wilks, Yorick et al. (1996)
The Construction of Modern Lexicons. In: Electric Words. MIT Press, pp 121-136.


Session: 13. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials I: Hypertext

Indy: 11.14; Blm: 11.24; Topics:

Assignments (team):

  1. Create hyperlinks for your page. Since this is not an Internet class: if you are not familiar with html, you do not need to implement the links. Instead you can describe a hypertext structure for your page in words, such as "links from list of contents page to ...".
  2. (Not to be included in the journal, individual.) Have a look at the following web pages and their subpages: The Xanadu Project and Ted Nelson's page. The Bush Symposium "As we may think" page.

Readings:

Balasubramanian, V. (1994).
Hypertext - An introduction. In: State of the art review on hypermedia issues and applications, pp 2-12. Converted to HTML by Denys Duchier, March 1994. Available here.

Liebscher, Peter. (1994).
Hypertext and indexing. In: R. Fidel et al. (Eds.). Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information for American Society for Information Science, pp 103-109.
(Optional) Nelson, Theodor H. (1994).
Xanadu: document interconnection enabling re-use with automatic author credit and royalty accounting. Information Services & Use, 14, pp 255-265.
(Optional) Simpson, R., et al. (1996).
50 years after "As we may think": The Brown/MIT Vannevar Bush Symposium. Interactions, 3(2), pp 47-67.
(Optional) Baumbach, D. (1992).
Hypertext. In: Macmillan encyclopedia of computers. New York: Macmillan, pp 508-511.


Session: 14. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials II: Verbal vs. Nonverbal Subject Analysis

Indy: 11.21; Blm: 12.1; Topics:

Assignments (not to be included in the journal):

  1. Discuss the pros and cons of indexing the intellectual content of images based on meaningfulness or usefulness to patrons, as proposed by Krause.
  2. Compare two Internet image index systems: http://www.sils.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/htdocs/index.html
    http://wwwqbic.almaden.ibm.com/~qbic/qbic.html

Readings:

Austin, David L. (1994).
An image is not an object: but it can help. In: A. H. Helal and J. W. Weiss (Eds.). Resource sharing: new technologies as a must for universal availability of information. Essen: Universitaetsbibliothek Essen, pp 277-294.
Krause, Michael G. (1988).
Intellectual problems of indexing picture collections. Audiovisual Librarian, 14, pp 73-81.
Shatford Layne, Sara. (1994).
Some issues in the indexing of images. JASIS, 45(8), pp 583-588.
(Optional) Feder, Judy. (1995?).
New directions for image recognition: toward image content-based retrieval for the World Wide Web. Advanced Imaging, X, 26, 28.
(Optional) Grund, A. (1993).
ICONCLASS: On subject analysis of iconographic representations of works of art. Knowledge organization, 20, pp 20-29.
(Optional) Lunin, Lois F. (1994).
Analyzing art objects for an image database. In: R. Fidel et al. (Eds.). Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information for American Society for Information Science, pp 57-72.


Session: 15. Analysis, Synthesis and Projection

Indy: 12.5; Blm: 12.8; Topics:

Readings:

Fallows, James. (1996).
Navigating the galaxies. Atlantic Monthly (April 1996), pp 104-107.
Pool, Robert. (1994).
Turning an info-glut into a library. Science 266, pp 20-22.
Steinberg, Steve G. (1996).
Seek and ye shall find (maybe). Wired (May 1996), pp 108-114.
(Optional) Svenonius, Elaine. (1992).
Classification: Prospects, problems and possibilities. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudon (eds.). Classification Research for Knowledge Representation and Organization, pp 5-25.
(Optional) Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Universals. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 177-191.
(Optional) Davis, Watson. (1967/1965).
The universal brain: Is centralized storage and retrieval of all knowledge possible, feasible, or desirable? In: M. Kochen (Ed.). The growth of knowledge. New York: John Wiley, pp 60-65.


Topics for group presentations

Session: 4. Cognitive Organization of Information I: Categorization

The cultural nature of categorization. For example: color terms in different cultures.

Session: 5. Cognitive Organization of Information II: Scripts, Schemas, and Mental Models

John Sowa's Conceptual Graphs.

Session: 6. Systematic Organization of Information: Classification

Classification systems in the WWW.

Session: 7. Classification Schemes I: Enumerative systems

The structure of the Dewey Decimal Classification.

Session: 8. Classification Schemes II: Faceted systems

Faceted structures in the Universal Decimal Classification.

Session: 9. Indexing I: Principles, Practice, and Languages

ISO-Standards for indexes and information retrieval.

Session: 10. Indexing II: Automatic Systems of Indexing and Classification

Analysis of an automatic indexing system.

Session: 11. Thesauri I: Structures

Automatic thesaurus building and consistency checking.

Session: 12. Thesauri II: Practical Applications

WordNet

Session: 13. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials I: Hypertext

Hypertext

Session: 14. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials II: Verbal vs. Nonverbal Subject Analysis

Classification and retrieval of images.


Uta Priss
Thu Aug 7 14:26:45 EST 1997