L505: Organization and Representation of Knowledge and Information

School of Library and Information Science
Indiana University
Fall 1996

Instructor: Uta Priss
Email: upriss@indiana.edu
Office: 022 SLIS
Office phone: 812-855-2793
Office hours: will be determined during the first class meeting

Introduction

The representation and organization of information resources is a primary focus of the information profession. Organizational structures such as classification schemes, indexes, bibliographies and catalogs have been devised to provide access not only to the document, but to its intellectual content - the knowledge or information recorded in the document. The recent explosive growth in both the number and the variety of information resources serves to underscore the continuing need for application of effective methods of representation and organization.

Practical and effective systems of information representation and organization must depend upon a comprehensive understanding not only of the theoretical foundations of bibliographic organization but also of the basic principles of human cognition. Accordingly, this course will investigate the basic principles and theoretical foundations of traditional organizational schemes. This investigation will include materials from traditional librarianship, information science, cognitive science, semiotics, and artificial intelligence and expert systems that have contributed to an understanding of how people obtain, store, retrieve and use information. It will also examine how research in these areas can inform current practices of representation and organization in the design of more effective and more efficient information retrieval systems.

Course Objectives

  1. To introduce the student to a broad range of knowledge representation models drawn from the fields of information science, communication, semiotics, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence.
  2. To develop in the student the ability to understand and effectively apply principles of representation and organization currently used to provide access to information resources.
  3. To provide practical experience in applying the basic principles of knowledge organization and representation to the indexing, abstracting and classification of information in several media.
  4. To enable the student to analyze information resources for hypertext indexing.
  5. To provide the student with a practical understanding of the function of subject analysis in indexing and classification.
  6. To provide the student with an understanding of the development and application of controlled vocabularies and syndetic structures.
  7. To introduce the student to the major classification systems currently in use and to provide the student with the ability to effectively employ such classification schemes in the representation of information.

Class Organization

The structure of each class session will center around lectures by the instructor, group presentations, and class discussions. Lecture, presentations, and discussions will cover the topic for the session as indicated on the syllabus. Students are strongly encouraged to participate actively in all lectures and discussions since each student's participation in class activities will constitute 15 % of his/her final grade. During the first session students will form teams. Each team will get a certain topic related to one session for which they will prepare a presentation (see below).

Required Readings

There is no required text for this class. However, the text listed below will be available in the IMU bookstore by the second week of classes, in case you would like to purchase it.

Iyer, Hemalata. (1995). Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt am Main: Indeks Verlag.

A copy of this book is on Reserve in the SLIS library, as are copies of other assigned readings. The Class Schedule Part I (contained in this handout) lists the readings assigned for class sections 1-6. It is required that every student completes every week's readings before the Monday session in that week.

Grading Scale

The following definitions of letter grades have been defined by student and faculty members of the Committee on Improvement of Instruction and have been approved by the faculty as an aid in evaluation of the student performance and to assist students by giving them an understanding of the grading standards of the School of Library and Information Science.

tabular32

Grading

The final course grade will be computed for each student on the basis of grades assigned for the following:

tabular37

Each student is expected to complete all coursework by the end of the term. A grade of incomplete (I) will be assigned only if exceptional circumstances warrant.

Class contribution

Class contribution does not mean attendance, but the quality and quantity of contributions to the work of the class. Comments and questions are equally valuable if they help to clarify the topics and progress the discussion. The assignments and readings of each week must be completed by the Monday session so that substantive and meaningful contributions from the students are possible. It is required that every student demonstrates respect for the ideas, opinions, and feelings of all other members of the class.

Group presentation

In the first session the students will form teams. Each team will get a topic assigned that is related to one session for which they prepare a presentation. The topics consist of a subject or subject area, such as a certain classification system or a certain aspect of thesaurus research. The team will prepare a list of references for the topic, study the structures of information or knowledge contained in the topic, and apply the terms and concepts learned from this course to the topic. The class presentation will highlight the important features of the topic and present the results of the team's analysis, including a critical evaluation of the subject. The presentation will last for 20 minutes. Handouts of 1 or 2 pages containing the main statements and the references will be prepared.

Each group consults the instructor at least twice before the presentation. A list of possible references and ideas will be gathered before the first consultation. During the meeting with the instructor it should be obvious whether all team members equally participate in the preparation of the presentation.

Journal

Journals are to be organized chronologically and should be kept in a spiral notebook or bound composition book. It is also acceptable to use a computer text editor and keep printouts in a folder. Each entry should be dated and should carry a short heading that indicates the type of entry (summary of assigned or outside reading, abstract, class commentary, class notes, essay, etc.). Because journals are personal, the content will vary and will reflect the intellectual effort put forth by that student. The completeness rather than the content will be the basis for grading. The following materials are required of all journals:

Optional materials may include:

Journals will be turned in for review and evaluation at three separate points during the fall semester (Sept. 23, Oct. 28, Dec. 2). At each review, a letter grade will be assigned based on

The final journal grade will be computed as an average of the three review grades.

Final Exam

The final exam will be a take-home exam consisting of not more than 6 essay questions and will be distributed at the conclusion of the class on December 4. It will be due at the beginning of the class on December 9.

Academic Dishonesty

Any assignment that contains plagiarized material or indicates any other form of dishonesty will receive, at a minimum, an automatic grade of F. A second instance will result in an automatic grade of F for the course.


Class Schedule

Session: 1. Introduction to Organization of Knowledge and Information

Monday, Sept. 2, Topics:

Wednesday, Sept. 4, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Write in your journal about how your personal library is organized. Which other methods of organizations are possible.
  2. Which methods of organization are used in a phone-book? Which possibilities of information retrieval offers a phone-book on CD-ROM compared to a printed phone-book?

Readings:

Macrorie, Ken (1976).
Chapter 16: Keeping a journal. In: Writing to be read. 2nd ed., Rochelle Park, NJ: Hayden, pp 147-158.


Session: 2. Data, Information, and Knowledge

Monday, Sept. 9, Topics:

Wednesday, Sept. 11, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Write in your journal a short essay on `what is information?'

Readings:

Buckland, Michael. (1991).
Information as thing. JASIS, 42, pp 351-360.
Machlup,F., and Mansfield, U. (1983).
Cultural diversity in studies of information. In: F. Machlup and U. Mansfield (Eds.), The study of information: Interdisciplinary messages. New York: John Wiley, pp 3-59.
Wilson, P. (1978).
Some fundamental concepts of information retrieval. Drexel Library Quarterly 14 (2), pp 10-24.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Interdisciplinarity. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 12-28.


Session: 3. Abstracting workshop

Monday, Sept. 16, Topics:

Wednesday, Sept. 18, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Prepare a list of subjects for the three articles.
  2. Write an indicative and an informative abstract for the Bush article.
  3. Write an indicative or an informative abstract for the other two articles.

Readings:

Borko, Harold, and Bernier, Charles L. (1975).
Characteristics and types of abstracts. In: Abstracting concepts and methods. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp 3-24.
Fidel, Raya. (1986).
Writing abstracts for free-text searching. Journal of Documentation, 42 (1), pp 11-21.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991).
Introduction; Indexing principles. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, Il.: University of Illinois Press, pp 1-18.

Articles for abstracting:

Bush, Vannevar. (1996/1945).
As we may think. Interactions, 3(2), pp 35-46. Originally published in Atlantic Monthly, 176 (1), pp 101-108.
Gross, Linden. (1996).
Steven Spielberg's close encounter with the past. Reader's Digest (April 1996), pp 71-76.
Randi, James. (1996).
Investigating miracles, Italian-style. Scientific American (February 1996), p 136.


Session: 4. Cognitive Organization of Information I: Categorization

Monday, Sept. 23, Topics:

Wednesday, Sept. 25, Topics:

Assignments:

Visit a grocery store and write an analysis of the store's organization in your journal. In your analysis, focus on

  1. how the merchandise is organized/categorized;
  2. why you think this particular organizational structure was adopted; and
  3. whether this organizational/categorization scheme actually helps or hinders the customer in finding specific items.

Readings:

Jacob, Elin K. (1991).
Classification and categorization: drawing the line. In: Barbara H. Kwasnik and Raya Fidel (Eds.). Advances in classification research. Vol. 2, Washington D.C.: American Society for Information Science, pp 67-83.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. (1991).
Chapters 1, 2, and 4 of The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 5-32 and 61-80.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Cognition and Categories. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 40-56.


Session: 5. Cognitive Organization of Information II: Scripts, Schemas, and Mental Models

Monday, Sept. 30, Topics:

Wednesday, Oct. 2, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. List elements of the script "Shopping in a grocery store". Try to develop a graphical representation of the script.
  2. Choose two different persons who shop in the same grocery store, but have different expectations (eg. an American that moved recently to a new town, a person from a foreign culture). In what way is their shopping supported - or not - by the grocery store you analyzed last week? Try to explain the problems in terms of scripts.

Readings:

Lakoff, George, and Johnson, Mark. (1980).
Metaphorical systematicity: highlighting and hiding. In: Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp 10-13.
Rumelhart, David E. (1984).
Schemata and the cognitive system. In: Wyer and Srull (Eds.). Handbook of social cognition. Vol. 1, Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp 161-188.
Miller, George A. (1956).
The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63, 81-87.
Schank, Roger, and Kass, Alex. (1988).
Knowledge representation in people and machines. In: Umberto Eco, Marco Santambrogio and Patrizia Violi (Eds.), Meaning and mental representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp 181-200.
Wright, Robert. (1996).
Can machines think? Time (March 25 1996), 50-58.


Session: 6. Systematic Organization of Information: Classification

Monday, Oct. 7, Topics:

Wednesday, Oct. 9, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Choose 3 items that are sold in a grocery store and define classes for them according to different aspects (eg. according to physical shape, purpose of use, how long storable, etc.). Why are different classifications needed? Is there a multi-purpose classification? How do classes for these items differ from categories?

Readings:

Bliss, Henry Evelyn. (1934).
The problem of classification for libraries. In: The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books. New York: H. W. Wilson, pp 1-20.
Bliss, Henry Evelyn. (1934).
The principles of classification for libraries. In: The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books. New York: H. W. Wilson, pp 21-46.
Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1950).
Classification as the basis of bibliographic organization. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 77-96.
Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1957).
Pattern, structure, and conceptualization in classification for information retrieval. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 112-128.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Normative principles. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 30-39.


Session: 7. Classification Schemes I: Enumerative systems

Monday, Oct. 14, Topics:

Wednesday, Oct. 16, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Choose one book in the area of library and information science and describe how it is classified in the library in which it was located. How would it be classified if the Dewey Decimal or the Library of Congress Classification were used?

Readings:

Shera, Jesse H. (1965/1961).
The dignity and advancement of Bacon. In: J. H. Shera. Libraries and the organization of knowledge. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, pp 143-150.
Buchanan, Brian. (1979).
Introduction; Classification: definition and uses; The relationships between classes; Enumerative and faceted schemes; Decisions. In: Theory of library classification. London: Clive Bingley, pp 7-44.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Structural models of classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 88-96.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Non-faceted classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 97-104.
Dewey, Melvil. (1972/1927).
Decimal classification and relative index. In: A. F. Painter (ed.). Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging. NCR Microcard Editions, pp 81-86.


Session: 8. Classification Schemes II: Faceted systems

Monday, Oct. 21, Topics:

Wednesday, Oct. 23, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Create a chart table comparing the characteristics of enumerative and faceted classification systems

Readings:

Vickery, Brian C. (1972/1966).
Faceted classification schemes. In: A.F. Painter (Ed.). Reader in classification and descriptive cataloguing. NCR Microcard Editions pp 107-114.
Iyer, Hemalata (1995).
Faceted Structures. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations, and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 105-125.
Williamson, N. and McIlwaine, I.C. (1994).
A feasibility study on the restructuring of the Universal Decimal Classification into a fully faceted classification system. In: H. Albrectsen and S. Oernager (Eds.). Advances in Knowledge Organization, Vol 4, Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 406-413.
Ranganathan, S. R. (1962).
Canons of Classification. In: Elements of library classification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, pp 45-70.


Session: 9. Indexing I: Principles, Practice, and Languages

Monday, Oct. 28, Topics:

Wednesday, Oct. 30, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Choose one category term from the LC Subject Headings that also exists in the ERIC Thesaurus. How is the term represented? Compare the strength and weakness of LCSH and ERIC (chart table).

Readings:

Taylor, Arlene G. (1995).
On the subject of subjects. Journal of Academic Librarianship 21(6), 484-491.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid (1991).
Indexing Practice. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, Il., University of Illinois Press, pp 19-40.
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991).
Natural language in information retrieval. In: Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. Champaign, IL, University of Illinois Press, pp 193-218.
Green, Rebecca. (1992).
Insights into classification from the cognitive sciences: Ramifications for index languages. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 215-222.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Vocabularies. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 60-85.


Session: 10. Indexing II: Automatic Systems of Indexing and Classification

Monday, Nov. 4, Topics:

Wednesday, Nov. 6, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Write a chart table: advantages and problems of automatic systems of indexing and classification.

Readings:

Chan, Lois Mai. (1990).
Subject analysis tools online: The challenge ahead. Information Technology and Libraries 9(3), 258-262.
Humphrey, Susanne M. (1992).
Use and management of classification systems for knowledge-based indexing. In: J. Williamson and M. Hudon (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 89-100.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Artificial intelligence and classification. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 163-175.
Lancaster, F. Wilfred (1991)
Automatic indexing, automatic abstracting and related procedures. In: Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp 219-246.
Svenonius, E., et al. (1992).
Automation of chain indexing. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.). Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 351-364.


Session: 11. Thesauri I: Structures

Monday, Nov. 11, Topics:

Wednesday, Nov. 13, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Design a thesaurus entry for `thesaurus' using the syndetic structure `UF/BT/RT/NT'. Try to locate `thesaurus' in LCSH and ERIC. Compare the syndetic structures in LCSH and ERIC with your thesaurus entry.

Readings:

Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Faceted approach to indexing systems. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 127-142.
Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987).
Planning and design of thesauri. In: Thesaurus construction: A practical manual. 2nd ed., London: Aslib, pp 3-10.
Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987).
Structure: basic relationships and classification. In: Thesaurus construction: A practical manual. 2nd ed., London: Aslib, pp 34-60.
Soergel, Dagobert. (1985).
Terminological control. In: Organizing information. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp 213-222.


Session: 12. Thesauri II: Natural Language Thesauri and Applications

Monday, Nov. 18, Topics:

Wednesday, Nov. 20, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Locate the word `thesaurus' in WordNet and Roget's International Thesaurus. How is `thesaurus' classified in both thesauri? How do natural language thesauri differ from library thesauri, such as LCSH and ERIC?

Readings:

Wilks, Yorick et al. (1996)
The Construction of Modern Lexicons. In: Electric Words. MIT Press, pp 121-136.
Calzolari, Nicoletta (1988)
The Dictionary and the Thesaurus can be Combined. In: Evens, M. W. (ed.). Relational Models of the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, Eric H. (1995)
A Hypertext interface for a Searcher's Thesaurus.
http://csdl.tamu.edu/DL95/
Yarowski, David (1992)
Word-Sense Disambiguation Using Statistical Models of Roget's Categories Trained on Large Corpora. Proc. of COLING-92, Nantes, Aug. 23-28, 1992.


Session: 13. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials I: Hypertext

Monday, Nov. 25, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. Compare two Internet image index systems:
    www.sils.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/htdocs/index.html 
    wwwqbic.almaden.ibm.com/~qbic/qbic.html

Readings:

Balasubramanian, V. (1994).
Hypertext - An introduction. In: State of the art review on hypermedia issues and applications, pp 2-12. Converted to HTML by Denys Duchier, March 1994.
http://www.isg.sfu.ca/ tex2html_wrap_inline364 duchier/misc/hypertext_review/index.html

Liebscher, Peter. (1994).
Hypertext and indexing. In: R. Fidel et al. (Eds.). Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information for American Society for Information Science, pp 103-109.
Nelson, Theodor H. (1994).
Xanadu: document interconnection enabling re-use with automatic author credit and royalty accounting. Information Services & Use, 14, pp 255-265.
Simpson, R., et al. (1996).
50 years after "As we may think": The Brown/MIT Vannevar Bush Symposium. Interactions, 3(2), pp 47-67.
Baumbach, D. (1992).
Hypertext. In: Macmillan encyclopedia of computers. New York: Macmillan, pp 508-511.

Wednesday, Nov. 27

No class: Thanksgiving


Session: 14. Organization and Representation of Multimedia Materials II: Verbal vs. Nonverbal Subject Analysis

Monday, Dec. 2, Topics:

Wednesday, Dec. 4, Topics:

Assignments:

  1. In your journal discuss the pros and cons of indexing the intellectual content of images based on meaningfulness or usefulness to patrons, as proposed by Krause.

Readings:

Austin, David L. (1994).
An image is not an object: but it can help. In: A. H. Helal and J. W. Weiss (Eds.). Resource sharing: new technologies as a must for universal availability of information. Essen: Universitaetsbibliothek Essen, pp 277-294.
Feder, Judy. (1995?).
New directions for image recognition: toward image content-based retrieval for the World Wide Web. Advanced Imaging, X, 26, 28.
Grund, A. (1993).
ICONCLASS: On subject analysis of iconographic representations of works of art. Knowledge organization, 20, pp 20-29.
Krause, Michael G. (1988).
Intellectual problems of indexing picture collections. Audiovisual Librarian, 14, pp 73-81.
Lunin, Lois F. (1994).
Analyzing art objects for an image database. In: R. Fidel et al. (Eds.). Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information for American Society for Information Science, pp 57-72.
Shatford Layne, Sara. (1994).
Some issues in the indexing of images. JASIS, 45(8), pp 583-588.


Session: 15. Analysis, Synthesis and Projection

Monday, Dec. 9, Topics:

Readings:

Davis, Watson. (1967/1965).
The universal brain: Is centralized storage and retrieval of all knowledge possible, feasible, or desirable? In: M. Kochen (Ed.). The growth of knowledge. New York: John Wiley, pp 60-65.
Fallows, James. (1996).
Navigating the galaxies. Atlantic Monthly (April 1996), pp 104-107.
Iyer, Hemalata. (1995).
Universals. In: Classificatory structures: Concepts, relations and representation. Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag, pp 177-191.
Pool, Robert. (1994).
Turning an info-glut into a library. Science 266, pp 20-22.
Steinberg, Steve G. (1996).
Seek and ye shall find (maybe). Wired (May 1996), pp 108-114.
Svenonius, Elaine. (1992).
Classification: Prospects, problems and possibilities. In: N. J. Williamson and M. Hudon (eds.). Classification Research for Knowledge Representation and Organization, pp 5-25.

Wednesday, Dec. 11

No class

Uta Priss
Wed Oct 2 15:12:07 EST 1996